The European Union (EU) has 27 member states: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (including Gibraltar, excluding the Channel Islands, BNO passport holders and Isle of Man) From 31 January 2020 the UK is no longer an EU/EEA member state. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. The population of Sark largely remained where they were;[20] but in Alderney, all but six people left. Christianity was brought to the islands around the sixth century; according to tradition, Jersey was evangelised by St Helier, Guernsey by St Samson of Dol, and the smaller islands were occupied at various times by monastic communities representing strands of Celtic Christianity. The other two are a 7.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄4 in (184 mm) gauge miniature railway, also on Alderney, and the heritage steam railway operated on Jersey as part of the Pallot Heritage Steam Museum. Samson of Dol, Helier, Marculf and Magloire are among saints associated with the islands. The European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement and the European Union (EU) are not the same thing. Both are British Crown dependencies, and neither is a part of the United Kingdom. [17][18] Sir Edmund Andros of Guernsey was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England.[19]. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (including Gibraltar, excluding the Channel Islands, BNO passport holders and Isle of Man) From 31 January 2020 the UK is no longer an EU/EEA member state. [50], Victor Hugo spent many years in exile, first in Jersey and then in Guernsey, where he finished Les Misérables. Among these are Bréhat, Île de Batz, Chausey, Tatihou and the Îles Saint-Marcouf. [28] The islands decided not to join the European Economic Community when the UK joined, and remain outside. Creative commons license. [7] The islands became detached by rising sea levels in the Neolithic period. The numerous dolmens and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at La Hougue Bie[8] in Jersey or the statue menhirs of Guernsey. Anglicanism was imposed in the seventeenth century, but the Non-Conformist local tendency returned with a strong adoption of Methodism. Switzerland is not an EU member nor a signatory to the EEA, but they have transposed the Medical Devices Directives into their national law and these countries require CE Marking. the Crown, the Church, and the people). Regional television and radio broadcasts are available in the islands. 28 member states within EU; three of the four member states of the EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). It used to include Switzerland and the visa regimes of most countries throughout the world still treat Swiss passport holders as if Switzerland was still an EEA member. Among the legal heritage from Norman law is the Clameur de haro. It seeks to strengthen trade and … Historically there have been railway networks on Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, but all of the lines on Jersey and Guernsey have been closed and dismantled. A regular passenger ferry service on the Commodore Clipper goes from both Channel Island ports to Portsmouth daily, and carries both passengers and freight. The German occupation of 1940–45 was harsh: over 2,000 Islanders were deported by the Germans,[20] some Jews were sent to concentration camps; partisan resistance and retribution, accusations of collaboration, and slave labour also occurred. The following states are "EU applicants" and may become EU members in … As the Channel Islands are not a part of the EU and do not benefit from the UK's membership (except for the provisions of Protocol 3 concerning trade in goods), Brexit will have no direct impact on the Channel Islands' financial services industries and a limited impact on trade in goods. The lowest point is the English Channel (sea level). Switzerland is neither an EU nor EEA member but is part of the single market – this means Swiss nationals have the same rights to live and work in the UK as other EEA nationals. Under the UK Interpretation Act 1978, the Channel Islands are deemed to be part of the British Islands,[37] not to be confused with the British Isles. In Alderney, the occupying Germans built four camps in which over 700 people out of a total worker population of about 6,000 died. They are located just off the coast of France, in the English Channel. The Isle of Sark Shipping Company operates small ferries to Sark. The Chausey Islands south of Jersey are not generally included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but are occasionally described in English as 'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction. [14][15][16], The islands acquired commercial and political interests in the North American colonies. The UK Parliament has power to legislate for the islands, but Acts of Parliament do not extend to the Islands automatically. The Channel Islands, Isle of Man and Gibraltar are not within the EEA. Submarine cables connect the various islands and provide connectivity with England and France. [41], Both bailiwicks issue their own banknotes and coins, which circulate freely in all the islands alongside UK coinage and Bank of England and Scottish banknotes.[44]. Many of the rules that apply for the EEA countries also apply for Switzerland, Norway and The Faroe Islands. Edward III of England granted a Charter in July 1341 to Jersey, Guernsey, Sark and Alderney, confirming their customs and laws to secure allegiance to the English Crown. Before German troops landed, between 30 June and 4 July 1940, evacuation took place. In 1259, his successor, Henry III of England, by the Treaty of Paris, officially surrendered his claim and title to the Duchy of Normandy, while the King of France gave up claim to the Channel Islands, which was based upon his position as feudal overlord of the Duke of Normandy. The islands' bailiffs, however, still retain their historic roles. Both bailiwicks are members of the British–Irish Council, and Jèrriais and Guernésiais are recognised regional languages of the islands. The EEA is composed of all EU members states as well as the following: Iceland. However, there is a formal relationship between the Channel Islands and the EU which is governed by Protocol 3 to the UK's Act of Accession to the European Economic Community in 1972 ("Protocol 3"). The formal relationship between the Channel Islands and the EU is enshrined in Protocol 3 of the UK’s 1972 Accession Treaty, and confirmed in what is now Article 355 (5) (c) of the EU Treaties. According to 2015 statistics, 39% of the population was non-religious.[59][60]. It allows them to be part of the EU’s single market. The EEA is an agency of the European Union. They have been parts of the Duchy of Normandy since the tenth century, and Queen Elizabeth II is often referred to by her traditional and conventional title of Duke of Normandy. However, the Channel Islands Brussels Office (CIBO) ensures that Jersey’s interests are promoted in Europe. Legal notice. EEA is short for European Economic Area. Software updated on 23 November 2020 18:51 from version 20.10.13. Three additional countries (Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein), although not officially part of the European Union, are signatories to the European Economic Area (EEA). [21] Thousands of children were evacuated with their schools to England and Scotland. Many of the evacuees who returned home had difficulty reconnecting with their families after five years of separation. The European Economic Area, abbreviated as EEA, consists of the Member States of the European Union (EU) and three countries of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway; excluding Switzerland).. Ferry services to Normandy are operated by Manche Îles Express, and services between Jersey and Saint-Malo are operated by Compagnie Corsaire and Condor Ferries. [41], Jersey has had a steadily rising population, increasing from below 90,000 in 2000 to over 105,000 in 2018 which combined with a flat GVA has resulted in GVA per head of population falling from £57,000 to £44,000 per person. The grant of seigneurship from Elizabeth I of England in 1565 forms the basis of Sark's constitution today. [citation needed]. Today, Evangelical churches have been established. Any British citizen who applies for a passport in Jersey or Guernsey receives a passport bearing the words "British Islands, Bailiwick of Jersey" or "British Islands, Bailiwick of Guernsey". They are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy and, although they are not part of the United Kingdom, the UK is responsible f… In 1066, William II of Normandy invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, also known as William the Conqueror. Although the words derive from a common root ('bail' = 'to give charge of') there is a vast difference between the meanings of the word 'bailiff' in Great Britain and in the Channel Islands; a bailiff in Britain is a court-appointed private debt-collector authorised to collect judgment debts, in the Channel Islands, the Bailiff in each bailiwick is the civil head, presiding officer of the States, and also head of the judiciary, and thus the most important citizen in the bailiwick. They were historically linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, and not part of the British Isles or of the Channel Islands in a political sense. The Roman name for the Channel Islands was I. Lenuri (Lenur Islands) and is included in the Peutinger Table[9]:4 The traditional Latin names used for the islands (Caesarea for Jersey, Sarnia for Guernsey, Riduna for Alderney) derive (possibly mistakenly) from the Antonine Itinerary. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders. A similar thing with Greenland and the Faroes which are neither part of the EU even though they are Danish autonomous dependencies. Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the Iron Age period. Software version: EEA Plone KGS 20.11.21. Guernsey (GBG): a number of up to five digits; This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 10:00. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Jersey held out strongly for the Royalist cause, providing refuge for Charles, Prince of Wales in 1646 and 1649–1650, while the more strongly Presbyterian Guernsey more generally favoured the parliamentary cause (although Castle Cornet was held by Royalists and did not surrender until October 1651). [5]:158 The term refers only to the archipelago to the west of the Cotentin Peninsula. The end of the occupation came after VE-Day on 8 May 1945, Jersey and Guernsey being liberated on 9 May. Common Agriculture and Fisheries Policies (although the Agreement contains provisions on various aspects of trade continued the work. Switzerland, previously participating, was neither an EU nor EEA member but was part of the single market so Swiss nationals had the same rights to live and work in EEA countries as other EEA nationals. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services online, through Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn. Therefore EEA contains same countries as SEPA with the … They make up 99% of the population and 92% of the area. In 2001 and 2002, the Channel Islands entered a team into the MCCA Knockout Trophy, the one-day tournament of the minor counties of English and Welsh cricket. UK stamps are no longer valid, but mail to the islands, and to the Isle of Man, is charged at UK inland rates. The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe. In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey, now part of the United States of America. Tourism 4.5% with agriculture contributing just 1.2% and manufacturing even lower at 1.1%. In the sixth century, they were already included in the diocese of Coutances where they remained until the Reformation. The term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830, possibly first by the Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. In September 2010, a Channel Islands Brussels Office was set up jointly by the two Bailiwicks to develop the Channel Islands' influence with the EU, to advise the Channel Islands' governments on European matters, and to promote economic links with the EU.[36]. 6,600 out of 50,000 left Jersey while 17,000 out of 42,000 left Guernsey. The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain –the country's principal first-level administrative division. Otherwise, entities proclaiming membership of both Guernsey and Jersey might in fact be from one bailiwick only, for instance the Channel Islands Securities Exchange is in Saint Peter Port (and therefore Guernsey). In official Jersey French, the islands are called 'Îles de la Manche', while in France, the term 'Îles Anglo-normandes' (Anglo-Norman isles) is used to refer to the British 'Channel Islands' in contrast to other islands in the Channel. Bitte die mit * gekennzeichneten Felder ausfüllen. The legal courts are separate; separate courts of appeal have been in place since 1961. Modern broadband speeds are available in all the islands, including VDSL for home and business. The Eionet core data flows page provides an overview of these data flows, which are a subset of the key data reported by EEA member and cooperating countries using the Reportnet tools. [35], The islands have never been part of the European Union, and thus were not a party to the 2016 referendum on the EU membership, but were part of the Customs Territory of the European Community by virtue of Protocol Three to the Treaty on European Union. Guernsey is the setting of Hugo's later novel Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea). The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some islands such as Burhou, the Écréhous, and the Minquiers have been designated Ramsar sites. The names of the larger islands in the archipelago in general have the -ey suffix, whilst those of the smaller ones have the -hou suffix. Hinweis: Services are held in a number of languages. € – Eurozone. Systems Status. This affected only a minority of islanders. [49] There are four main dialects/languages of Norman in the islands, Auregnais (Alderney, extinct in late twentieth century), Dgèrnésiais (Guernsey), Jèrriais (Jersey) and Sercquiais (Sark, an offshoot of Jèrriais). The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche)[note 1] are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. However, pursuant to the Treaty of Paris (1259), she governs in her right as The Queen (the "Crown in right of Jersey",[31] and the "Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey"),[32] and not as the Duke. Today there are three working railways in the Channel Islands, of which the Alderney Railway is the only one providing a regular timetabled passenger service. [27] The first evacuees returned on the first sailing from Great Britain on 23 June,[20] but the people of Alderney were unable to start returning until December 1945. It includes the Azores, Madeira ( Portugal ), the Ǻland islands ( Finland ), the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla ( Spain ) and the French overseas departments. Intense negotiations resulted in some humanitarian aid being sent via the Red Cross, leading to the arrival of Red Cross parcels in the supply ship SS Vega in December 1944. The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG (Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and .JE (Jersey), which are managed by channelisles.net. The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man have Associate Member status. The EEA extends the single market to all 31 member states and allows nationals of participating countries to travel freely between them. In the late twentieth century, a strong Roman Catholic presence re-emerged with the arrival of numerous Portuguese workers (both from mainland Portugal and the island of Madeira). A bailiwick is a territory administered by a bailiff. Many of the town domiciles existing today were built in that time. Code for developers. However, Switzerland no longer participates in the European Economic Area. Jubilee Hospital Radio provided Guernsey hospitals with a radio service, Radio Lions serves Jersey hospitals. The Duchy of Normandy. The waters around the islands include the following: The highest point in the islands is Les Platons in Jersey at 143 metres (469 ft) above sea level. They include two Crown dependencies: the Bailiwick of Jersey, which is the largest of the islands; and the Bailiwick of Guernsey, consisting of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm and some smaller islands. Control by the bishop of Winchester was ineffectual as the islands had turned overwhelmingly Calvinist and the episcopacy was not restored until 1620 in Jersey and 1663 in Guernsey. Switzerland is a member of EF TA but is not a member of the EEA. Switzerland is a member of EFTA but is not a member of the EEA. This notwithstanding, it is a matter of local pride for monarchists to treat the situation otherwise: the Loyal toast at formal dinners is to 'The Queen, our Duke', rather than to 'Her Majesty, The Queen' as in the UK.[33]. The Channel Islands are not represented in the UK Parliament. Only three of the four countries that belong to … See EEA disambiguation page for other meanings of EEA.. Download printable version. Islanders are full British citizens, but were not classed as European citizens unless by descent from a UK national. [citation needed], Various attempts to transfer the islands from the diocese of Coutances (to Nantes (1400), Salisbury (1496), and Winchester (1499)) had little effect until an Order in Council of 1569 brought the islands formally into the diocese of Winchester. This has been ascribed to a range of factors including the physical separation of the Islands, the density of troops (up to one German for every two Islanders), the small size of the Islands precluding any hiding places for resistance groups, and the absence of the Gestapo from the occupying forces. In 1483 a Papal bull decreed that the islands would be neutral during time of war. The islands were the only part of the British Isles to be occupied by the German Army during World War II. The Agreement on the EEA entered into force on 1 January 1994. 'Îles Normandes' and 'Archipel Normand' have also, historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole. There are three airports in the Channel Islands; Alderney Airport, Guernsey Airport and Jersey Airport, which are directly connected to each other by services operated by Blue Islands and Aurigny. In Jersey, potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. The dependencies of other member states presumably have similar arrangements. scope. For the archipelago off the coast of California, see, Satellite photo of the Channel Islands in 2018, UK Supreme Court, R (on the application of Barclay and another) v. Secretary of State for Justice [2014] UKSC 54, List of islands of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, Channel Islands in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, minor counties of English and Welsh cricket, List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the Channel Islands, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Fact sheet on the UK's relationship with the Crown Dependencies", Bertrand du Guesclin: The Black Dog of Brittany, "Appendix F: Concentration Camps: Endlösung – The Final Solution", "Aurigny; un camp de concentration nazi sur une île anglo-normande (English: Alderney, a Nazi concentration camp on an island Anglo-Norman)", "Nazi Germany Surrenders: February 1945 – May 1945", "Public Hearing: Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers", "Review of the Roles of the Jersey Crown Officers", "Background briefing on the Crown Dependencies: Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man", "Guernsey and Jersey begin recruiting for senior Brussels positions", "Jersey Economy 2020, CIA World Factbook", "Measuring Jersey's economy GVA and GDP - 2018", "Gross Value Added and Gross Domestic Product", "Guernsey Annual GVA and GDP Bulletin 2018 (First Estimates)", "Other British Islands' Notes | Bank of England", "New Channel Island company offers freight service", "Channel Isles: The Islands' Domain Names :: Home", "Trail of the unexpected: Victor Hugo’s Guernsey", "Minor Counties Trophy Matches played by Channel Islands", "First ever Jersey official religion statistics show 39% of islanders are non-religious", "This is the eighth part of a 54-page article", British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Guernsey Grammar School and Sixth Form Centre, Policy and Resources Committee of Guernsey, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Channel_Islands&oldid=993204012, Special territories of the European Union, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2015, Articles with French-language sources (fr), CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Little Swinge (between Burhou and Les Nannels), La Déroute (between Jersey and Sark, and Jersey and the Cotentin), Souachehouais (between Le Rigdon and L'Étacq, Jersey). 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